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Amongst a sample of white high school students in Rio de Janeiro the range was between 37—43 percent. Therefore, the consideration of local racial distribution differences might lead to a different interpretation of national intermarriage rates. In this sense, the intermarriage rates that cannot be explained by racial distribution may be justified by other local characteristics that are not being controlled for. Most studies about interracial marriage, especially in Brazil, calculate rates of homogamy and heterogamy using national data.

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Therefore, the consideration of local marriage markets is important when studying intermarriage see for instance, Freiden; Angrist; Queiroz; Posel et al. This difference in racial distribution influences exposure, which consequently influences opportunities and preferences within the marriage market. In regard to the United States, Harris and Ono found that national estimates of race effects on partnering declined by about 19 to 53 percent once they controlled for the racial composition of local marriage markets Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Metropolitan Statistical Areas.

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When national data are used, possible differences in local marriage markets are not considered, including racial distribution and cultural factors. The most common explanation for lower rates of intermarriage than homogamy i.

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La diferencia entre las diferencias porcentuales es menor en que en Palabras clave: Matrimonio interracial, Mercado matrimonial local, Modelos log-lineales, Brasil. Telles and Lim; Bailey This result corroborates the argument about the low degree of groupness and how racial boundaries in Brazil are not clearly defined. Another issue is the association between race and socioeconomic conditions Schwartzman Politics may also influence racial self classification in Brazil Bailey Another specific characteristic of the Brazilian racial system is the recognition of mixed-race people as a distinct category, which sometimes makes both the creation of specific racial boundaries and self-classification difficult.

This increase was due more to changes in cultural norms and racial composition.

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The consideration of local characteristics is also important for helping to elucidate the main reason for intermarriage. Homogamy is declining for whites and blacks at the same pace, but is increasing slightly for browns Heaton Most studies about local marriage markets has focused on the analysis of sex ratios see for instance, Freiden; Angrist; Queiroz; Posel et al.

In this article, I also argue that the local marriage market may influence the first intermarriage cause noted by Kalmijn. Over time, racial endogamy has been declining, as have educational and religious endogamy as well Heaton; Longo; Ribeiro and Silva Overall, endogamy was 77 percent init declined to 73 percent inand reached 65 percent White wife completely used Longo But this process is not the same for all racial groups.

A few additional authors explored other characteristics such as racial distribution Harris and Ono; Telles; socioeconomic characteristics and immigrant influence Telles; and economic opportunity for females, male economic attractiveness, and racial differences Posel and Casale When considering Brazil, all analyses of interracial marriages using loglinear models utilized national level data i.

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The show that homogamy-heterogamy rates have traditionally been overestimated, as demonstrated by a change that ranges between The gap between the percentage differences is smaller in than in In addition, although most meso-regions have homogamy-heterogamy rates similar to the average, there are some important regional differences, especially in the South, where the levels are higher than the average. Racial homogamy is greatest for blacks and those with mixed ancestry brown have much lower rates of homogamy.

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In this article, I used Census data for the years and to calculate the homogamy-hetereogamy rates, including information on the local racial distribution of wives and husbands. While racial identity is more related to ancestry in the United States, in Brazil physical characteristics are the main indicators of race.

Moreover, how people are racially perceived of by others also depends on local characteristics. The main result is that when analyzing the local racial distribution, the odds ratios for intermarriage drop about The main conclusion is that without considering the local racial distribution, research has overestimated homogamy-heterogamy rates and overemphasized the role of racial boundaries and racial preferences in the marriage market.

Keywords: Interracial marriage, Local marriage market, Loglinear models, Brazil. How would interracial marriage rates and their analysis change when considering the racial distribution of the local marriage market? Because of that important change it is fundamental to investigate what looks like the Brazilian marriage market after In78 percent of all marriages were racially endogamous, with rates being higher among whites When controlling for the size of the population, this relationship inverts and blacks have the highest rate of endogamy Petruccelli On average, couples are 5.

Section four discusses the and the article concludes with some final considerations. The third section presents the data and method I used.

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This analysis also sheds light on whether the explanations for interracial marriage, besides racial distributions, are the same or different among local marriage markets. Hence, marriage patterns are a result of preferences and opportunities. Inabout Although there are higher levels of intermarriage in Brazil than in the United States and South Africa, marriages are far from being random. Therefore, this article sheds light on to what extent national rates of intermarriage in Brazil are related to opportunities, while answering the question: how would homogamy rates be affected if the racial distribution in different areas was considered in the analysis?

Sincethe Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics ibge has used four racial in the Census and other surveys: branco whitepardo brownpreto blackand amarelo asian. As noted by Ribeiro the racial classification in Brazil is much more a continuum than a set of fixed. Rather, propinquity or the extent of interracial interaction determines nearly all the regional variation. The characteristics of the geographical area considered as the marriage market, including the racial distribution, are perceived as constraints White wife completely used as facilitators of intermarriage.

For the year in Brazil, there was a concentration of whites in the South, where Nonwhites were concentrated in the North of the country: 4. In other words, this analysis will examine whether there are specific differences within local markets, such as, cultural, economic, and social. In this case, researchers assume that there is either one national marriage market or no variation across local marriage markets Harris and Ono Another implication of using this approach is the fact that this method assumes that the probability of marrying someone from the local marriage market is the same as marrying someone far away.

The author claims that geographical differences have little or nothing to do with variations in tolerance. Abstract: This article focuses on the following question: How would interracial marriage rates change when considering the racial distribution of the local marriage market? Another explanation suggested by Telles is the greater exposure of whites to nonwhites in Brazil, which also helps to explain the geographical differences in interracial marriage rates.

Kalmijn indicates that intermarriage rates in smaller areas might be due more to preferences than opportunities. However, the racial classification of people can vary across the country, and in this sense, racial self and the perception of others is influenced by exposure and local social norms. The proportion of whites in mesoregions during this period ranged from The distribution of black people ranged from 1.

However, most people 95 percent used only six terms, including three of the already used by the ibge : white Therefore, the majority of Brazilians seem to use a small of terms, with white and moreno being the most common terms, comprising 76 percent of all answers Silva Although there is an understanding that racial boundaries are fluid, racial distribution in Brazil remained very stable between and During this time period, the proportion of blacks was between 5—6 percent, browns were between 39—42 White wife completely used, and whites were 54—52 percent ibge The Census data show that whites represent The main change from the last Census in is the current absence of a majority racial group in Brazil.

The main assumptions in this approach, are: i race is distributed equally across the country or ii the probability of marrying someone that lives close or further away is the same Harris and Ono Another assumption is that race classification is the same in the whole country. Although endogamy is preferred, there is less resistance to marriage between persons of proximate color in comparison with the much higher resistance to marriage between whites and blacks Telles, In an interracial union, white people are ten times more likely to marry a brown spouse than a black one.

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In other words, how much of the drop in the odds ratio is due to a different racial distribution. Moreover it is worth highlighting the possible changes due to racial reclassification between Censuses Miranda The article is divided into five sections, including this introduction.

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The understanding is that intermarriage is an indicator of social distance. The gap between the percentage differences is smaller for compared to Therefore, changes over time are important for explaining the higher increase of unions between whites and blacks than between whites and browns. Se utilizan datos de los censos brasileros de y y se estiman modelos log-lineales.

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It is ificant to note that racial classification also depends on who is doing the reporting because important differences arise when comparing self-reporting and classification conducted by another person i. One of the main concerns about the official terms used by the ibge is the extent to which they correspond to informal terms largely used by the population. The second section addresses background research on racial classification, interracial marriage, and the local marriage market in Brazil.

For the Brazilian marriage market, it is very important to consider local racial distributions because there are great geographical differences in racial distribution with a higher concentration of blacks and browns in the North and Northeast and the majority of the population being white in the South. Telles also cautions and makes clear that exposure does not explain all the differences between Brazil and the United States.

However, without considering demography group size it is not possible to fully understand intermarriage as a social boundary SilvaThus, it is important to consider the conditions of local marriage markets, including the racial distribution, because part of the rate White wife completely used be explained as a lack of opportunity and not necessarily the result of preferences.

I used data from the Brazilian Census for the years and and loglinear models.

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